Acute Medically this generally refers to a new problem that is serious.
Adequate intake (AI) – This is an estimate of how much of the nutrient is needed to keep you healthy. This is used when a “Recommended Dietary Intake (RDI)” level can not be determined. It means that currently there isn’t enough scientific evidence to be certain about how much of the nutrient our bodies need.
Adv APD Stands for advanced and is an APD whose outstanding leadership skills have been acknowledged by the Dietitians Association of Australia. In 2019, only 129 of Australian dietitians (~2%) have been recognised as advanced practitioners. Cathy Harbury, Enlighten Nutrition co-founder is an AdvAPD.
Albumin Is an important component of blood that is principally formed in the liver.
Not only does it help to regulate the pressure in our blood vessels, it is also a transport protein for fatty acids, bilirubin, and hormones such as cortisol and thyroxine. Its production relies on eating an adequate amount of dietary protein and albumin decreases with severe protein deficiency.
Alcohol Is a high energy fluid (27 KJ per gram) not prohibited by weight loss surgery. This means the amount drunk is a personal choice. Surgery is known to change alcohol metabolism. After a gastric bypass alcohol is absorbed faster with higher maximum concentrations experienced. It remains unclear how a Sleeve Gastrectomy affects alcohol absorption, however anecdotally people do report a more potent effect.
After surgery there is some evidence that individuals are at risk of developing alcohol use disorder (AUD) or relapsing from previous abstinence.
Alopecia – is a medical term to describe hair loss.
Anaemia is a condition caused by not having enough healthy red blood cells. There are many types of anaemias that can occur after surgery (iron, vitamin B12, folate, protein, copper, selenium and zinc). The most common is iron deficiency with several studies reporting prevalence at 20% (and up to 50%) two to four years after surgery.
Requirements for iron are very individual, related to gender, dietary preferences, absorptive capacity, and losses (eg via menstruation).
Do you know how to prevent becoming anaemic?
Antioxidants are beneficial compounds that occur naturally in fruits and vegetables. Eating high antioxidant fruit and vegetables is a great way to protect your body from the risk of certain diseases (heart disease) and some cancers (gastrointestinal and liver).
Antrum the lower section of the stomach
APD stands for Accredited Practising Dietitian. This is the only nutrition and dietetic qualification recognised by the Australian Government, Medicare, the Department of Veterans Affairs and private health funds. APD’s are university-trained specialists who commit to practising professionally and following Professional Standards. Cathy Harbury and Nicole West, the co-founders of Enlighten Nutrition are both APD’s.
Appetite refers to the desire to eat food. For example, appealing cooking smells can stimulate appetite even when someone doesn’t feel hungry.
Bariatric is the name given to the branch of medicine that specialises in the causes, prevention and treatments of obesity. It comes from the Greek term “Baros” meaning weight.
Bariatric Beri Beri is a serious and debilitating disease caused by thiamine deficiency. It is termed “Bariatric” Beri Beri when it occurs after weight loss surgery
Bile Is a digestive fluid made by the liver and is stored in the gallbladder. Bile works to breakdown dietary fats in the small intestine.
Biotin Is a water-soluble B-group vitamin (B7) widely available in foods. Biotin deficiency is known to cause hair loss but there is no research to show that supplementation promotes growth.
Be aware biotin supplementation should be stopped before having a blood test since it can interfere with the immunoassays of some tests to give incorrect results. Check with your pathology laboratory for more information.
The 100,000 hair follicles on our scalp require essential nutrients (protein, vitamins and minerals) to grow healthy hair. To learn more about what vitamin and minerals you need to grow healthy hair subscribe to Eat Right 90 Day Transition and the LIVE RIGHT DAILY HEALTH PROGRAM.
Body Scan Or a DEXA (dual energy x-ray absorptiometry) scan is a valid method for evaluating body composition. This scan measures the amount of fat, muscle and bone in the body. Monitoring these body compartments provides an alternative method for evaluating health, particularly bone and muscle health. This is useful when trying to prevent sarcopenia and osteoporosis.
Bone Density is the amount of bone mineral in bone tissue. Low bone density can lead to osteopenia and osteoporosis.
Blood Test (with weight loss surgery) International clinical practice guidelines recommend pre-operative blood tests before weight loss surgery to evaluate micronutrients and to treat any existing deficiencies. Recommended tests include EUC (electrolytes, urea & creatinine), CMP (comprehensive metabolic panel including liver studies), iron studies, active B12, calcium, vitamin D and those relevant to your medical history (eg fasting insulin for impaired glucose tolerance).
After surgery, regular blood testing (at least annually) is required to titrate vitamin and mineral supplements. This can assist in preventing deficiencies that can develop over time.
BMI (body mass index) Is a measure of weight proportional to height (weight in kilograms divided by the square of height in metres). It is a simple measure of “fatness” and as BMI gets high so does the risk of having obesity related health problems. It is not a precise measure due to the individual variability of body composition.
The World Health Organisation classifies the normal range as BMI 18.5 – 24.9, overweight 25 – 30, obese > 30. In Australia, around 4.9 million adults are classified as obese.
Bolus Is a medical term to describe the ball that forms when food has been chewed and mixed with saliva.
Calcium is a vitamin vital for bone health, nerve function, muscle contraction (including the heart), blood clotting, and other critical physiological functions. Weight loss surgery can contribute to hypocalcemia due to low dietary intake, low protein, malabsorption, low magnesium and vitamin D deficiency. Calcium is stored mostly in bone and low intakes contribute to poor bone density and may lead to osteoporosis.
There is no simple way to check calcium balance so it’s a good idea to be vigilant with all the factors that can promote good stores.
Calorie is a standard measure of how much energy is in food or drink. It is standardised by assessing in the laboratory how much heat energy is needed to raise the temperature of one gram of water by one degree Celsius. In Australia, we use the metric measure kilojoules rather that imperial measure calories. 1 calorie is the same as 4.1868 kiljoules.
All food and drink varies in its content of energy (kilojoules) due to variations in fat, carbohydrate, protein and alcohol content. Lowering energy intake below requirements is a key strategy for weight loss.
At Enlighten Nutrition we believe surgery should free you from the burden of counting calories. To learn more subscribe to the LIVE RIGHT DAILY HEALTH PROGRAM.
Carbohydrates Are an essential macronutrient contained in a wide variety of foods. They fuel our vital organs including the brain, nervous system and kidneys which means they are contribute to a healthy eating plan. Food sources of carbohydrate also provide other nutrients such as thiamine, folate, vitamins A, E, B6, calcium, magnesium, iron, potassium and fibre.
After weight loss surgery, some individuals need to balance their carbohydrate intake to avoid dumping syndrome and our programs assist with this. Overall, losing weight and keeping it off long-term requires a sensible approach and that’s what we do best at Enlighten Nutrition.
For those who worry that carbohydrates foods will make them gain weight the best option is to avoid refined cereals and swap to eating healthy whole grains. Wholegrain cereals can reduce the risk of developing heart disease, some cancers, diabetes and diverticular disease as they are a rich source of essential vitamins, minerals and beneficial phytochemicals (lignans, phytic acid, saponins, phytosterols, squalene, oryzanol, tocotrienols, and phenolic compounds)
At Enlighten Nutrition we are dedicated to helping you develop knowledge and skills to live a healthier life. To learn more subscribe to LIVE RIGHT DAILY HEALTH PROGRAM.
Cholecystectomy is the surgical removal of the gallbladder. This is a common way to treat severe and reoccurring painful attacks caused by gallstones. Gallstone formation is a side effect of rapid weight loss that often occurs in the early months after weight loss surgery.
Chronic means something that has been happening for a long time, often 6 months or longer.
Conception Is a medical word that means becoming pregnant. After weight loss conceiving occurs more easily due to increased fertility and women of childbearing age who have weight loss surgery should be mindful of this.
There is no international consensus on the ideal time to conception after surgery. Expert opinion suggests waiting 1 to 1.5 years despite limited scientific evidence. Those wishing to start or extend their family after surgery are best to consult with their healthcare team. It can be tricky balancing nutrition risks and adverse pregnancy outcomes with declining fertility due to aging.
Those who become pregnant after weight loss surgery are advised to closely monitor their nutritional status at each trimester to help manage increased risk of iron deficiency anaemia that can lead to preterm delivery.
At Enlighten Nutrition we’re dedicated to providing you with the latest evidence to help guide important decision after weight loss surgery. To stay up to date with all the latest research subscribe to the LIVE RIGHT DAILY HEALTH PROGRAM.
Constipation is the term given when stools become hard, dry and difficult to pass and are not passed regularly. Symptoms can include abdomen bloating and cramping. Common causes after surgery are not eating enough fibrous foods, not drinking enough hydrating fluids and limited movement. Steps should be taken to avoid chronic constipation as complications include haemorrhoids, rectal prolapse and urinary incontinence.
CT Fizz is a medical procedure that involves drinking a fizzy liquid while having a CT (computed tomography) scan. It is used to measure the size of the stomach.
DAA stands for Dietitians Association of Australia and is the peak body for the dietetic profession, representing more than 7,000 members. DAA members research and deliver evidenced-based information. The co-founders of Enlighten Nutrition, Cathy Harbury and Nicole West have DAA credentials meaning their advice and support is solid and dependable.
Deficiency stands for lack or shortage of. After weight loss surgery it is difficult to maintain hydration, meet requirements for all vitamins, minerals, protein, energy and fibre. Expert guidance with lots of tips and tricks on maximising nutrition is essential and this is what we do best at Enlighten Nutrition.
Diagnosis the identification of a disease from a set of symptoms.
Diarrhoea Describes the need to urgently and frequently pass watery stools. After weight loss surgery causes of diarrhoea can be unrelated to surgery such as consuming food or water contaminated with micro-organisms (eg food poisoning or travellers diarrhoea) or a virus. Alternatively, it could be associated with weight loss surgery (eg lactose intolerance or dumping syndrome).
Determining the cause of diarrheoa can be tricky so its best discussed with a health professional such as your surgeon, GP or specialist weight loss surgery dietitian. Understanding the underlying cause of diarrhoea is important to help guide treatment, including the prevention of vitamin and mineral malnutrition.
Dietitian a health professional who has been university trained in the prevention and treatment of illness by optimising the nutrition of individuals and communities. Study includes substantial theory about human nutrition, assessed professional practice in clinical nutrition, medical nutrition therapy and food service management.
Distension a medical word to describe bloating of the stomach.
Diuretic is any substance that increases the production of urine. Examples of diuretics include medication (fluid tablets) such as Lasix and natural compounds like caffeine found in various beverages (eg tea & coffee).
Dumping Syndrome describes a set of adverse symptoms that occur when hyperosmolar fluids or foods (high fat, high sugar, alcohol) move too quickly from the stomach to the small intestine. Symptoms include a drop of blood pressure leading to vasomotor symptoms (such as palpitations, perspiration, shakiness) and diarrhoea. It is common after weight loss surgery when individuals do not follow expert recommendations.
Duodenum The part of the gastrointestinal tract after the stomach. It is the first section of the small intestine and is the main site for nutrient absorption.
Dysphagia Is the term used to describe a swallowing impairment due to anatomic or physiological abnormalities.
EFA is short for essential fatty acids, which are alpha-linolenic acid (omega 3) and linoleic acid (omega 6). For good health these need to be eaten as the human body is unable to make them from other types of fats eaten.
Electrolytes Are naturally occurring substances that transmit electrical currents. In our bodies we have a balance of sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, chloride, hydrogen phosphate, and hydrogen carbonate. Hormones balance our electrolytes and this is essential for healthy body function such as a regular heart beat.
At Enlighten Nutrition we are dedicated to helping you develop knowledge and skills to live a healthier life. To learn more subscribe to LIVE RIGHT DAILY HEALTH PROGRAM.
Enteral Nutrition Is a term commonly used by dietitians to describe a range of medically formulated nutritional supplements. These products assist in the treatment of specific health conditions and are routinely used by hospital dietitians.
Enzymes Are essential proteins involved in chains of chemical reactions that promote normal body functioning. Enzymes are involved in more than 5000 different reactions within the body, and most of these rely on adequate amounts of vitamins and minerals.
Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) – This is the amount of the nutrient that is estimated to meet the needs of half the healthy individuals in a particular life stage and gender.
Fat (dietary) Fat is essential component of a healthy diet and it is best to balance the different types (saturated, trans fat, polyunsaturated, monounsaturated) including the ratio between omega 3 and omega 6 polyunsaturated fats.
After weight loss surgery, a balanced eating plan, avoiding overconsumption of fat is important to avoid sub-optimal weight loss, weight regain, and / or gastro-intestinal upset such as dumping syndrome.
At Enlighten Nutrition we are dedicated to helping you develop knowledge and skills to live a healthier life. To learn more subscribe to LIVE RIGHT DAILY HEALTH PROGRAM.
Fat Soluble Vitamins Include vitamin A D E and K. They are stored in our body for a long time and can cause toxicity if consumed in high amounts.
Fatty Liver is a medical term used to describe an abnormal amount of lipids in your liver. It can be diagnosed with an ultrasound or a blood test. Your surgeon will ask you to follow a Very Low Energy Diet and avoid alcohol for a period of time before surgery to improve the health of your liver prior to surgery.
Ferritin is how the body stores iron. It is found in many body organs and is routinely measured to evaluate iron levels and check for deficiency. Monitoring and maintaining ferritin levels is essential to avoid iron deficiency anaemia. This type of anaemia is associated with hair loss.
Fibre Is a term to describe some beneficial substances (soluble, insoluble and fermentable) found in plant foods. They work to keep our gut healthy (and can lower blood cholesterol). After weight loss surgery insoluble fibre (the indigestible part of plant foods) helps to pass regular bowel motion to prevent constipation.
The Eat Right 90 Day Transition provides guidance on optimising fibre intake while balancing protein needs.
Fluid Diet refers to a drinking plan aimed at promoting recovery from surgery. This “fluid diet” drinking plan should only include liquids that are smooth, lump free and able to pass freely through a straw.
Dietitians are trained to develop drinking plans with adequate hydration and nourishment (protein, vitamins, minerals and fibre). This “fluid diet” is recommended after weight loss surgery to help avoid unnecessary pain, discomfort and vomiting.
A “fluid diet” drinking plan is included in the Eat Right 90 Day Transition. It’s been developed with the assistance of our own chef to add delicious to nutritious.
FODMAP’s refers to a group of sugars including fructose, lactose, fructan, galactans and polyols. These sugars are poorly absorbed and are fermented in the large intestine. This can be bothersome for individuals with Irritable Bowel Syndrome or other gut disorders. Using low FODMAP foods can be helpful.
Folate (folic acid) Is an essential B group vitamin for everyone. It supports normal red blood cell formation, makes DNA for growth and development of cells and tissues. It is an easily absorbed nutrient from both food and supplements. It’s absorption does depend on zinc, so zinc deficiency can cause folate deficiency. Some common symptoms of folate deficiency anaemia include extreme fatigue, headaches and a sore mouth. These are similar to those seem in vitamin B12 deficiency. These two nutrients are important to each other.
Folate supplementation prior to conception and in the first trimester of pregnancy can reduce the occurrence of neural tube defects. This is an important consideration for women of childbearing age given that weight loss increases fertility.
Enlighten Nutrition provides advice on the recommended amounts of key nutrients when you subscribe to either the Eat Right 90 Day Transition or LIVE RIGHT DAILY HEALTH PROGRAM.
Foodworks is the leading nutrition analysis software program licenced by Xyris software. It’s a tool dietitians use to analyse dietary intakes, recipes and meal plans that provides access to the latest and most comprehensive food composition data for Australia and New Zealand.
Enlighten Nutrition uses Foodworks to support the development of their nutritious and delicious recipes and eating plans.
Gallbladder Is an organ that sits near your liver. The liver produces bile to the gallbladder, which is then released from the gallbladder to the small intestines (duodenum), to support fat digestion.
Gallstones These are stones formed within the gallbladder and losing weight rapidly can increase the risk of their formation.
Gastric Band is also known as a lap band. It is a silicone device that is placed below the gastroesophageal junction to create an upper pouch. This limits the capacity to eat at one time. Most surgeons no longer offer this type of operation due to higher rates of complications (slippage, oesophageal dilatation, erosion, dysmotility) and poor weight loss. Many people are now having their gastric bands removed and considering revision surgery.
Gastric Bypass (Roux en Y Gastric Bypass) is a surgical weight loss procedure where your stomach is manipulated and re-attached further down your intestines. After this type of surgery nutritional deficiencies are common without expert advice from a Specialist dietitian.
Gastric Sleeve (Sleeve Gastrectomy) is a surgical weight loss procedure that removes 80% of the stomach. This dramatic changes eating ability and for most people this contributes to significant weight loss in the first 12 months. Following expert advice after a Sleeve Gastrectomy can help prevent common nutritional deficiencies.
Gastritis is a medical term used when your stomach lining is inflamed. The two main causes of gastritis other than infection and injury are regular use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) and too much alcohol. Symptoms can include nausea, vomiting, indigestion and pain.
Gastrointestinal (GI) tract – The gastrointestinal tract describes the tube that extends from our mouth to our anus (bottom). It’s main function is to digest and absorb the nutrients from the foods we eat. The four main segments of the GI tract are the oesophagus, stomach, small intestine and the colon.
Gastroscopy the medical procedure performed under anaesthetic to look at upper part of the gastrointestinal tract.
Gout is a type of inflammation arthritis that is caused by increased levels of uric acid. It is more common in older men, particularly those with obesity. Rapid weight loss increases the risk for attacks of gout.
Hair Loss (Alopecia) is commonly experienced about 6 months after weight loss surgery due to the stress of having major surgery and rapid weight loss. The hair follicles stop functioning normally due to these two stressors and more hair enters the dormant “tellogenic phase”. Hair loss is usually transient lasting less than 6 months. If hair loss occurs for longer than 6 months nutritional deficiencies such as low iron, zinc and protein may be a cause. Other causes for hair loss include thyroid disease, polycystic ovarian syndrome and genetic disposition.
Halitosis the medical word for bad breath.
Helicobacter-pylori a common bacteria that can damage the protective lining of the stomach.
Hiatus hernia describes when some of the organs of the abdomen such as the stomach poke through the diaphragm. It can cause reflux or heartburn.
Hunger Is a normal physical sensation usually experienced after long periods without eating.
Hydration By drinking enough water is vital. Every cell, tissue and organ requires water to work effectively. Water maintains our blood volume, temperature, supports our bowel health, and aids digestion processes. Individual needs do vary and increase with increased losses (eg perspiration). Maintaining good hydration means drinking around 35ml per kilogram of body weight.
Ileum is the third part of the small intestines. Its main role is to absorb B12, bile salts and the remaining undigested vitamin and minerals.
Ingested Is the term used when eating or drinking via the mouth
Intrinsic factor is an enzyme secreted by the parietal cells in the stomach. It plays an important role in the absorption of vitamin b12 in your terminal ileum.
Iodine The thyroid depends on iodine for normal growth and development. Deficiencies during conception can increase risk of stillbirth, abortion and congenital abnormalities.
Iron is a mineral that transports oxygen around our body (via haemoglobin) and helps support our immune system. Iron is found in red meats, offal and iron fortified breakfast cereals. Iron deficiency anaemia is the most common nutrient deficiency after weight loss surgery so its important to know how to match your daily food intake and multivitamin to your individual requirements.
Jejunum Is the second part of the small intestine that plays an important role in nutrient absorption.
Ketones are produced by the liver when your body uses stores of fat as an energy source, instead of carbohydrate (glycogen). Ketones are used as a source of energy once stores of glycogen and the liver are exhausted.
Excess ketones are urinated and ketone urine checking strips are available at chemists to monitor levels. The level of ketones in urine does is not necessarily associated with rate of weight loss.
Kilojoule Refer to calorie.
Label Reading Refers to the skill of deciphering the nutrition information panel on the back of packaged foods to make healthier food choices.
At Enlighten Nutrition we are dedicated to helping you develop skills to live a healthier life. To learn more subscribe to the LIVE RIGHT DAILY HEALTH PROGRAM.
Lactation the secretion of breast milk. Successful lactation after weight loss surgery relies on drinking adequate fluid and essential nutrients (including energy).
Lactose intolerance is the inability to digest the type of sugar found in milk and milk products. As milk and milk products provide essential nutrients for good health expert advice can assist with finding suitable alternatives to avoid becoming nutrient deficient.
By subscribing to the Eat Right 90 Day Transition you will learn how to manage lactose intolerance without cutting out essential nutrients.
Laxative A drug that increases bowel movement and treats constipation.
Leptin a hormone mostly made by fat cells that reduces feelings of hunger. The brain responds to levels of circulating leptin to help regulate stores of fat. Other functions of Leptin are not yet fully understood.
Listeriosis a bacterial infection that in pregnant women can cause stillbirth or spontaneous abortion. It’s easily avoided by safe preparation and cooking of food.
Morbid Is the term is used medically to describe diseases that cause poor health.
Motility A dietitian uses this word to describe the movement within the gastrointestinal system that is essential for digestion.
Multivitamin Refers to the wide range of supplements that contain various combinations and amounts of vitamins, and minerals. Although very few of those available at chemists and supermarkets are matched to the needs of those who’ve had weight loss surgery. This makes the choice of an appropriate multivitamin challenging and necessitates expert guidance.
NSAIDs are non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs that are used to reduce pain, fever and prevent blood clots, and in high doses decrease inflammation. Examples include Aspirin, Celebrex, Voltaren, and Ibuprofen. It’s a good idea to discuss with your surgeon before taking these medications after weight loss surgery as some are contraindicated.
Nutrient Deficiencies Is when your body does not absorb or obtain enough of a nutrient from what your consume (food and or multivitamin). Some deficiencies are irreversible, although most are preventable.
Nutrient Interaction Nutrients can interact with one another to assist or inhibit absorption. Mechanisms of nutrient absorption can be quite complex and it’s a subject dietitians study at University. Understanding these interactions is an important part of a dietitians clinical practice especially for those who help people avoid preventable nutrient deficiencies.
Obesity The World Health Organisation defines obesity as an individual with a body mass index (BMI) above 30 kg/m2.
Oesophagus the medical term for the 25 cm food pipe that connects the mouth to the stomach. Many people think of their oesophagus as their throat.
Osteomalacia The softening of bones due to problems with phosphate, calcium and vitamin D. In children it is called Rickets. It can cause body pains, muscle weakness and fragile bones.
Osteoporosis Is a disease of weakening bones and increases the risk of broken bones. Weight loss surgery patients are at a higher risk of Osteoporosis.
Pancreas Is an organ in your abdomen with two main roles. It acts within the digestive system and the endocrine system. It supports the digestion of food, particularly protein by producing pancreatic juices that contain enzymes that are activated in the small intestines (duodenum), to support protein digestion.
The pancreas also makes the hormones insulin and glucagon, which helps to regulate your blood sugar levels.
Parathyroid hormone a hormone secreted by the parathyroid gland that helps to balance calcium levels between the bone, kidneys and intestines.
Pepsin It is a digestive enzyme produced in the stomach that helps breakdown protein into smaller components for digestion.
Personal Trainer Are individuals qualified to provide fitness advice. Their nutritional advice is limited to general advice pertaining to the Australian Dietary Guidelines, according to Fitness Australia (the regulatory body for PT’s). After surgery expect to need more expert advice than that provided by your personal trainer.
Phytochemicals Are natural and beneficial substances found in plants including fruits, vegetables, grains and legumes. A diet rich in phytochemicals can reduce your risk of heart disease and some cancers due to their ability to boost immunity and reduce inflammation.
Enlighten Nutrition is dedicated to recommending nourishing and delicious foods for a healthier life when you subscribe to our programs the Eat Right 90 Day Transition and the LIVE RIGHT DAILY HEALTH PROGRAM.
Protein Aids recovery and prevents muscle loss after weight loss surgery. It is an essential nutrient needed by everyone, everyday. It is vital so our bodies can build and repair organs, muscles, skin, and hormones. Not consuming enough protein everyday risks weakness due to muscle wasting and malnutrition.
Our protein calculator will help you set your daily protein target with lots of ideas on how you can develop delicious and nutritious eating plans at every post-operative stage when you subscribe to Eat Right 90 Day Transition and the LIVE RIGHT DAILY HEALTH PROGRAM.
Puree Diet Refers to an eating plan that consists of foods with a modified texture. The texture is best described as smooth, lump free (perhaps with a little graininess) and requires no chewing. This type of eating plan is recommended after weight loss surgery to help avoid unnecessary pain, discomfort and vomiting. Expert advice from a weight loss surgery dietitian ensures this type of eating plan is nutritional balanced to contain essential macro and micronutrients.
A “puree diet” eating plan is included in the Eat Right 90 Day Transition. It’s been developed with the assistance of our own chef to add delicious to nutritious.
RDI Stands for Recommended Dietary Intake. Each essential nutrient has a level set by the Australian government (National Health and Medical Research Council) that is sufficient to meet the requirements of nearly all individuals. The level is based on available scientific knowledge.
All dietitians keep this information to hand and it provides the basis for their recommendations. As nutritional deficiencies are common after weight loss surgery Enlighten Nutrition provides lots of information about RDI’s.
Regurgitation Is the term used to describe food that has been chewed, swallowed then mixed with digestive fluids that returns to the mouth from the oesophagus or stomach. Many people describe regurgitation as vomiting.
Riboflavin (or Vitamin B6) Aids in protein metabolism, helps the immune system and assists in the formation of red blood cells.
Sarcopenia this is a medical term that describes decreasing amounts and function of skeletal muscle.
Satiety A word often used by dietitians to describe feeling satisfied and no longer hungry after eating.
Selenium Is a trace element that acts as an antioxidant to support thyroid and immune function. Selenium deficiency is less common as it is widely available in animal foods, seafood, and plants (depending on how much is in the soil where they are grown). Less in known about selenium and weight loss surgery. Although clinical practice guidelines recommend checking selenium levels after malabsorptive procedures when unexplained anemia, fatigue, persistent diarrhoea, cardiomyopathy or metabolic bone disease are present.
Soft Diet refers to an eating plan that consists of foods with a modified texture. The texture is best described as minced, moist, and soft. This type of eating plan is recommended after weight loss surgery to help avoid unnecessary pain, discomfort and vomiting. Expert advice from a weight loss surgery dietitian ensures this type of eating plan is nutritional balanced to contain essential macro and micronutrients.
A “soft diet” eating plan is included in the Eat Right 90 Day Transition. It’s been developed with the assistance of our own chef to add delicious to nutritious.
Supplement (nutritional) Is a word to describe multivitamins and medically formulated foods that aim to provide nutrients that someone may not be consuming. Supplements are mainly used to maintain adequate levels of macro and micronutrients to prevent deficiencies and malnutrition.
Terminal Ileum the last part of the small intestine that plays an important role in nutrient absorption.
Thiamine (or Vitamin B1) Is a B-group vitamin that has many essential functions including energy metabolism and nerve transmission. High energy systems such as the heart and brain depended on thiamine. Thiamine is poorly stored in the body so depletion can occur rapidly. It can take as little as 18 days to deplete body stores. After weight loss surgery, those who experience excessive vomiting or unable to consume adequate amounts are at high risk of thiamine deficiency. See Bariatric Beri Beri and Wernicke’s-Korsakoff disease. A common symptom is burning pain, often in the feet.
Toxicity can be caused by overdosing on specific vitamin and minerals. Mostly those that are stored in the body so that levels can increase over time to cause toxic symptoms. During pregnancy, teratogenic effects can also be experienced by exceeding recommended amounts of some vitamins such as vitamin A.
Triglycerides Are the main type of dietary fats eaten that then are circulated in the bloodstream to be used as energy by our body cells. Overeating can lead to high circulating triglyceride blood levels. High blood triglycerides are linked with an increased risk of health conditions such heart disease.
Enlighten Nutrition assists with healthy nutrition habits when you subscribe to the LIVE RIGHT DAILY HEALTH PROGRAM.
Ulcer is an internal wound in the gastrointestinal tract caused by stomach acid. It can also be associated with Helibacter Pylori, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) use, alcohol and smoking.
Upper Limit (UL) – Above this amount of a nutrient there is a risk that adverse health consequences may result.
Very Low Energy Diet (VLED) is a very strict eating plan as all normal meals are replaced by medically formulated products. The diet is designed to restrict eating to 4000 kiljoules (or less) each day.. A VLED is mostly recommended by a health care professional when very rapid weight loss is required in the treatment of obesity. Prior to weight loss surgery the surgeon usually recommends using a VLED pre-operative related to your BMI and liver status. A VLED is only recommended for short periods of time (often 2-4 weeks).
The VLED is devised so that the body uses alternative energy sources such as those stored within its organs (the liver) and body fat. The program is medically formulated to ensure nutritional adequacy, this is particularly important prior to surgery as excellent nutrition is required to assist with post-operative recovery (including healing).
Vitamin A Is a fat-soluble vitamin with antioxidant properties. It helps maintain normal reproduction, vision and immunity. It keeps skin and eyes healthy. For example, night blindness is caused by vitamin A deficiency. It is a fat soluble vitamin and this means caution is warranted when supplementing. It is more safely administered as beta-carotene and during pregnancy its essential to not exceed recommended supplement doses since this can have teratogenic effects.
The liver stores a years supply of Vitamin A. Vitamin A can reduce absorption of Vitamin K and interfere with Vitamin D. Low protein or zinc can exacerbate Vitamin A deficiency.
Vitamin B12 is an essential nutrient that is available in a wide range of foods. Its complex method of absorption involves hydrochloric acid, pepsin, protein R (in saliva), pancreatic enzymes and intrinsic factor. Removing some of the stomach compromises active absorption of vitamin B12 and enhancing passive absorption that occurs in the lower in the gastrointestinal tract is an option for maintaining healthy levels.
Unlike most water soluble vitamins body stores of vitamin B12 can be significant and it may take a while (even years) before vitamin b12 deficiency occurs. This means it needs to be monitored long term to help prevent deficiency.
Symptoms include anaemia, fatigue, lethargy, poor mobility, depression, and memory loss. Unfortunately, chronically low levels of vitamin B12 can cause irreversible neuropathy. This is because vitamin B12 is needed to make the myelin sheath of nerves. If you experience numbness and tingling in the hands and feet get your B12 checked!
At Enlighten Nutrition we’re dedicated to helping you avoid unnecessary deficiencies by providing you with the nutrition information to support better health. To join a health conscious community subscribe to LIVE RIGHT DAILY HEALTH PROGRAM after completing the Eat Right 90 Day Transition.
Vitamin C Is an antioxidant vitamin that is not synthetised in the human body (i.e we need to eat enough). It helps with iron absorption, immunity and assists with healthy growth of bones, teeth and gums. After weight loss surgery, dietary intake can be markedly decreased without expert nutrition guidance.
Vitamin C deficiency can cause cardiac failure, rhythm disturbances with chest pain, and low blood pressure. Scurvy is the name given to low vitamin C levels.
Vitamin D is a fat soluble vitamin that is manufactured in the skin following exposure to sunlight. It acts as a hormone controlling calcium levels in the blood and promotes bone health.
Deficiency is common among those with darker skin, office workers and for individuals with obesity. People with a BMI above 30 are at higher risk of low vitamin D. There are no signs or symptoms of low vitamin D so a blood test is required and guidance on how to titrate your multivitamin to your needs.
Vomiting Is the term used when stomach contents are expelled from the mouth. It commonly occurs during the recovery stage after weight loss surgery and decreases as people learn to adjust their eating behaviours. It is mostly avoided by following the recommendations of your specialist weight loss surgery dietitian.
Persistent vomiting is a serious issue and requires medical intervention. Vomiting for longer than 2 weeks can cause thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency and this has nasty consequences (heart failure, nerve damage, difficulty walking, confusion, memory loss and brain damage).
Water Soluble Vitamins Include vitamin B complexes; Thiamine, Riboflavin, Niacin, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, Folic Acid, Vitamin B12, Vitamin C and Beta Carotene. In our bodies, the amount stored and used for each of these nutrients does vary. This can make it tricky to match your multivitamin with your requirements to avoid preventable deficiencies.
Wernicke’s-Korsakoff disease this is the medical name given to Beri Beri disease when it causes specific problems (psychological, cardiovascular and neurological). It’s preventable by ensuring your thiamine levels do not become deficient.
Zinc Is a trace mineral that supports protein synthesis, plays a role in our immune system and is vital to our sense of taste. Zinc is involved in over 200 body functions.
Zinc deficiencies are usual detected from a blood test which is more accurate when collected after fasting. Deficiencies can lead to hair loss, skin rashes and low immunity. Zinc deficiency can also contribute to folate deficiency.
High doses of zinc are toxic and can cause copper deficiency (since zinc competes with copper). Signs of zinc overload include urinary tract infections, kidney stones, incontinence and enlarged prostate.